In The Universe of Motion, Larson proposes that the solar system was formed by a Type II supernova, where there was insufficient “Substance B” (stellar core) to form a white dwarf, so the cool remains were distributed out across space in a linear form. This is one possible explanation, though it is difficult to accept that the imploding core of a star would suddenly decide to move linearly outward in space and break into fragments.1 I offer an alternate explanation.
First generation stars, as those found in young aggregates such as globular clusters and dwarf galaxies, will not have any planetary systems, because their gravitation would simply pull in any nearby matter that would be the prospective planets. Even if a large rock were able to establish orbital velocity, it would decay fairly rapidly, because both the rock and the sun would be increasing in mass and gravitational attraction. The orbit would quickly degenerate to an ellipse, then the rock would be pulled into the sun, adding to its mass.
These first generation stars lead a solitary existence. Since they are composed primarily of “young” matter, they are most likely to continue to build mass, move up the main sequence, reach the thermal limit in the B and O-Class range, and become a Type I supernova. We see evidence of this in numerous open clusters (a globular cluster that has been pulled into the disk of the galaxy, and broken up), such as the Pleiades, that contain mostly blue stars, which are about to become supernova, and enter the binary and planet forming stages.
After the first generation star becomes a Type I supernova, the common binary star system is formed. Initially, neither component is visible. The original debris cloud is widely dispersed, and does not generate enough heat or light to detect, unless illuminated by nearby stars. The stellar core, imploded in space (and hence exploded in time), is too hot to observe, for its radiative emissions have moved into the X-ray band, well outside of the visible light and infrared.2
From this point, gravitation takes over and begins to condense the debris cloud, heating it up and creating a red super-giant (which we will refer to as the “A component”). Conversely, temporal gravitation takes effect on the stellar core remnant, pulling its components together in time, and expanding it in space, causing it to cool. Its emissions then move into the visible spectrum, forming the visible white dwarf star (which we will refer to as the “B component”). At this point, we have a red giant/white dwarf binary system—the second generation, and one of the most common star systems observed in this region of the galaxy. And the “parents” of an upcoming solar system.
However, the process of giving birth to a planetary system requires the death of the parents—another supernova. Examining the characteristics of the candidates, we find that it is more likely that the A component will reach its age limit and become a Type II supernova, before the B component can reach either the thermal or age limit.
The matter in the debris field that forms the A component will have been exposed to neutrinos, so the isotopic mass of the elements will be high. Though the B component was also exposed, its temporal motion, and inverse thermal motion, will cause isotopic mass to drop making the matter “younger.” By the time the A component forms a stellar object, the star will be prime for an age-limit explosion, just waiting on sufficient core density and magnetic ionization.3
So, by the time the A component reaches the orange giant (M or K stellar class), there is a high probability that it will become a Type II supernova.
The A component explodes, in a much more violent fashion than its predecessor, reaching into the ultra-high (3-x) speed ranges. Because of the proximity of the B component, the supernova will accelerate the white dwarf into the ultra-high speed range of the pulsar, shattering it into a number of pieces, from explosive shock wave.
These white dwarf fragments will behave like mini-pulsars, with the same “anti-gravity” motion, moving outward away from the center of mass of the system—which is the center of the supernova debris field; the former location of the A component star.
Thus, the second generation binary star system is destroyed and the third, planet-bearing generation begins to form. The core of the Type II supernova, being in the ultra-high speed range, will be a small pulsar. However, because of the lack of heavy materials at the core, it will be a very small object, and rapidly disappear from the Material Sector, to add to the background radiation of the Cosmic sector. Its vanishing point will, for some time, leave its mark as one focii of the elliptical orbits of the later planets.
Two other by-products of the Type II supernova are a ring structure, composed of intermediate (2-x) and ultra-high speed (3-x) matter, and a large cloud of low-speed (1-x) debris. The low-speed debris will eventually re-condense into another red giant sun, forming the third generation star.
The matter forming the ring structure will eventually cool, lose its ultra-high speed motion, and drift back towards the center of gravity (the newly forming sun). Gravitational attraction within the ring itself will create larger aggregates of matter within the ring, forming an asteroid belt. The white dwarf fragments, subject to the same conditions as the ring matter, will take up position on either side of this asteroid belt, depending on the velocity they achieved during the supernova explosion.4 Being of intermediate and ultra-high speed motion, the position of the asteroid belt, and planets, will form a quantized relationship—identified as the Titus-Bode Law.5
1 The stellar core explodes in time, and contracts in space. It is possible, however, that fragmentation could occur and produce a planetary system from ultra-high speed (3-x) motion, which appears linear in space. However, the resulting planets would cool quickly, revert back to low-speed motion (1-x) and be consumed by the star, early in its evolutionary process. This may be the situation with giant planets in debris fields around single, M or K-class stars.
2 The X-ray emissions from imploded, stellar matter moving faster-than-light gave rise to the “black hole” theories.
4 The remnant of the white dwarf, itself, being near unit speed, will become a dwarf planet in the asteroid belt. In our solar system, that core is identified as Ceres.